Communication had a vital role to play in ensuring that people belonging to a particular country or a culture or linguistic group interact with and relate to people belonging to other countries or culture or linguistic group. Communication adds meaning to human life. It helps to build relationship and fosters love and understanding. It enriches our knowledge of the universe and makes living worthwhile.
The Communication Process / Cycle
The transmission of sender’s ideas to the receiver and the receiver’s feedback or reaction to the sender constitute the communication cycle. The process of communication begins when one person (the sender) wants to transmit a fact, idea, opinion or other information to someone else (the receiver). This facts, idea or opinion has meaning to the sender. The next step is translating or converting the message into a language which reflects the idea. That is the message must be encoded. The encoding process is influenced by content of the message, the familiarity of sender and receiver and other situation of factors.
After the message has been encoded, it is transmitted through the appropriate channel or medium. Common channel in organization includes meeting, reports, memorandums, letters, e-mail, fax and telephone calls. When the message is received, it is decoded, by the receiver and gives feedback to the sender as the conformation about the particular message has been carefully understand or not.
Furthermore, the process of communication involves that (sender, message, encoding, communication channel, receiver, decoding and feedback). Therefore, person who desires to convey the message is known as sender. Sender initiates the message and changes the behavior of the receiver. Message is a subject matter of any communication also might involve any fact, idea, opinion or information. It must exist in the mind of the sender if communication is to take place. For encoding the communicator of the information organizes his idea into series of symbols (Words, signs, etc.) which, he feels will communicate to the intended receiver or receivers.
Moreover, communication channel be has to select the channel for sending the information. Communication channel is the media through which the message passes. It is the link that connects the sender and the receiver. For receiver person who receives the message is called receiver or receiver is the person to whom the particular message is sent by the transmitter. The communication process is incomplete without the existence of receiver of the message. It is a receiver who receives and tries to understand the message.
Additionally, decoding is the process of interpretation of an encoded message into the understandable meaning. Decoding helps the receiver to drive meaning from the message. Lastly, is feedback in communication process / cycle. Communication is an exchange process. For the exchange to be complete the information must go back to whom from where it started (or sender), so that he can know the reaction of the receiver. The reaction or response of the receiver is known as feedback. Brain drain: On whole process there is a possibility of misunderstandings at any level and is called brain drain. It may arise on sender side if they do not choose the adequate medium for delivery of message, by using default channel and it may also arise when receiver does not properly decode the message. In other words, we can say that it is breakdown of cycle at any level. Refer below (figure1.0 & figure2.0) the communication process.
Verbal Interpersonal Communication
Effective our verbal or spoken communication is dependent on a number of factors and cannot be full isolated from other important interpersonal skills such as. The process involved and the steps we can take that verbal communication are (speaking skills, listening skills, self-Disclosure, conflict and assertiveness, gender and verbal communication and barriers to effective verbal communication).
3.1 Speaking skills
To communicate effectively, speakers need to consider background, needs, and abilities of listeners. Moreover, Messages conveyed more effectively when spoken in simple, concrete, and specific way and Good speakers make verbal and nonverbal messages consistent.
3.2 Listening skills
Listening skills is also a very important in communication. By listening, the listener is able to interpret and understand what the speaker is trying to input to the listener. In order for the listener to get the information more effectively, the listener should not hog the conversation but should pay careful attention to the person talking. The listener also should use reflective listening and paraphrasing skill to respond back to the speaker. If ever the listener wants to give any feedback, the listener should give the feedback in a competent manner.
However, listening is not the same as hearing. Listening means paying attention not only to the story, the use of language and voice, and hoe the other person uses his or her body. Adults spend average of 70% of their time some of communication, of this average of 45% of their listening compare to 30% speaking, 16% reading and 9% is writing. (Refer below figure 3.0)
The communication for self-disclosure is defined as a psychological term as sharing with someone information which helps them understands you. Moreover, for the several important factors that influences self-disclosure and the state of the relationship involve that speak for yourself offer your own thoughts, feeling and opinions. Use sense describes what we see, touch, taste and smell. Additionally, describe what you are feeling and what you do and how you behave. It is important to note that self-disclosure should be voluntary process.
3.4 Conflict and Assertiveness
As you become more assertive, there are four basic ways to resolve conflict that is aggressive, manipulative, passive and assertive. The goal of aggressive behavior is to gain control or power. When you are aggressive, you express needs and want freely but in a hostile, tactless, or angry manner. For the manipulative refers to making attempts at indirectly influencing someone else’s behavior or actions. As human beings, our emotions often cloud our judgments making it difficult to see the reality behind hidden agendas or motives in different forms of behavior. The controlling aspects or shrewdness linked to manipulation are sometimes very subtle and may be easily overlooked, buried under feelings of obligation, love, or habit. In this article you’ll learn some ways to pick up on manipulative behavior occurring around you, so that you can sort it rather than jump to it.
Furthermore, the goal of passive behavior may result in a person’s rights being violated. The passivity may consist of hesitant speech, and avoidance of eye contact. Passive behavior usually reflects the underlying belief that one’s feelings aren’t important, or that one is too weak to act on those feelings. Lastly, the goal of assertive behavior is to resolve conflicts in a way that is satisfying for both you and others. When you are assertive, you express problems, feelings, needs, and wants in a way that is both self-satisfying and socially effective.
3.5 Gender and Verbal Communication
Every race, culture, civilization, and society on this planet shares two things in common: the presence of both men and women, and the need to communicate between the two. Gender and verbal communication is how each biological sex use verbal communication. There are many differences in how of both men and women, and the need to communicate between the two.
Men are found to speak more in general as women are found to speak more in detail and specific. For example, if a friend has a nice house, a man would say, “This is a nice place.” A women would say, “This is such a nice place, the kitchen is nice, living room so huge, and the bathroom also neat. An experiment had shown verbal communication of both genders to be affected as early as birth and these differences last until passing away.
Barriers of Communication
There are many reasons why interpersonal communications may fail. In many communications, the message may not be received exactly the way the sender intended and hence it is important that the communicator seeks feedback to check that their message is clearly understood.
There exist many barriers to communication and these may occur at any stage in the communication process. Barriers may lead to your message becoming distorted and you therefore risk wasting both time and money by causing and misunderstanding. Effective communication involves overcoming these barriers and conveying a clear and concise message.
Moreover, a categories of language barriers to communication include that clearly, language and linguistic. Nevertheless, even when communication in the same language, the terminology used in a message may act as a barrier if it is not fully understood by the receiver.
Effective of communication is a major part in achieving your educational goals. Effectively communicating with your teachers and peers is essential when it comes to your learning. Many times your instructor is the sender. Her job is to send you messages that include information about the skill you need to learn. Your instructor’s messages might include lectures or handouts for you. Your peers can also be the senders of a message. Many times learners are asked to work together as a team. You might be asked to work on a specific activity that would require you to receive messages from other team members or an appointed leader. Sometimes you may be asked to be the sender. Remember that communication involves speaking, listening, and observing.
Communication is a two-way process that involves getting your message across and understanding what others have to say. Communication involves active listening, speaking and observing. Now that you have learned the communication process, you can begin to evaluate your communication skills. Begin to watch yourself in action. Each time you communicate observe what you do, how it went, what went well, and what could have been better.